ISL Products manufactures a wide variety of piezoelectric acoustic generator elements. These include external drive and
self-oscillating buzzers, beepers, ringers and receivers.
Piezoelectric acoustical transducers are non-mechanical contact devices and feature the following advantages:
• Free from RF noise and contact sparking
• Simple, compact and light weight
• Consume little power and have long life
• Generate various timbres of pitches
Examples of applications are: telephones, watches,calculators, appliances, automobiles, smoke detectors and a
wide variety of other electronic equipment.
The basic element in all of these is a piezoelectric ceramic mounted on a metal diaphragm. When AC voltage is applied
across the electrodes of the piezoelectric ceramic it expands and contracts at the frequency applied.
For more information about Piezo Design, please review our PDF document.
Gear motors or gearbox motors were designed to deliver reliability and precision for DC motor applications. Miniature DC motors used in the gear motors are often slot wound iron core drives and are paired with planetary gear heads.
Standard DC gear motors are made in a wide variety of diameters and gear motor length. Some companies provide custom gearbox motors or DC gear motors. Micro-Drive DC gear motors offer high performance at low costs. ISL products can help you source a standard DC gear motor or micro-drive DC gear motor or help you develop a custom gearbox motor to suit your needs.
Do not turn a geared motor by its output shaft when, for example, arranging its position so as to install it.
The gearhead will become a speed-increasing mechanism, which will have harmful effects, damaging the gears and other internal parts; and the motor will turn into an electrical generator.
Many applications call for a high start-up torque. The D.C. motor, by it svery nature, has a high torque vs. falling speed characteristic and this enables it to deal with high starting torques and to absorb sudden rises in load easily. The speed of the motor adjusts to the load. Furthermore, the D.C. motor is an ideal way of achieving the miniaturisation designers are constantly seeking because the efficiency it gives is high compared with other designs.
The stator is formed by a metal carcass and one or more magnets that
create a permanent magnetic field inside the stator. At the rear of the
stator are the brush mountings and the brush gear which provide
electrical contact with the rotor.
The rotor is itself formed by a metal carcass carrying coils which are
interconnected at the commutator at the rear of the rotor.
The commutator and brush assembly then select the coil through which
the electric current passes in the opposite direction.
Principle of operation
Whatever the complexity of the rotor coil windings, once they are
energized, they may be represented in the form of a ferromagnetic
cylinder with a solenoid wrapped around it.
The wire of the solenoid is in practice the wire bundle located in each
groove of the rotor. The rotor, when energized, then acts as an
electromagnet, the magnetic field following the axis separating the wires
of the solenoid in the direction of the current which flows through them.
The motor, therefore, consists of fixed permanent magnets (the stator) a
moving magnet (the rotor) and a metal carcass to concentrate the flux
(the motor body).
By the attraction of opposite poles and repulsion of like poles, a torque
then acts on the rotor and makes it turn. This torque is at a maximum
when the axis between the poles of the rotor is perpendicular to the axis
of the poles of the stator.
As soon the rotor begins to turn, the fixed brushes make and break
contact with the rotating commutator segments in turn.
The rotor coils are then energized and de-energized in such a way that
as the rotor turns, the axis of a new pole of the rotor is always
perpendicular to that of the stator. Because of the way the commutator
is arranged, the rotor is in constant motion, no matter what its position.
Fluctuation of the resultant torque is reduced by increasing the number
of commutator segments, thereby giving smoother rotation.
By reversing the power supply to the motor, the current in the rotor coils,
and therefore the north and south poles, is reversed. The torque which
acts on the rotor is thus reversed and the motor changes its direction of
rotation. By its very nature, the DC motor is a motor with a reversible
direction of rotation.
The torque generated by the motor, and its speed of rotation, are
dependent on each other.
This is a basic characteristic of the motor ; it is a linear relationship and
is used to calculate the no-load speed and the start-up torque of the motor.
The curve for the output power of the motor is deduced from the graph
of torque versus speed.
The torque vs. speed and output power curves depend on the supply
The torque vs. speed and output power curves depend on the supply
voltage to the motor.
The supply voltage to the motor assumes continuous running of the
motor at an ambient temperature of 20ËšC in nominal operational
It is possible to supply the motor with a different voltage (normally
between -50% and + 100% of the recommended supply voltage).
If a lower voltage is used compared to the recommended supply the
motor will be less powerful. If a higher voltage is used, the motor will have a higher output power but
will run hotter (intermittent operation is recommended).
For variations in supply voltage between approximately – 25% to + 50%,
the new torque vs. speed graph will remain parallel to the previous one.
Its start-up torque and no-load speed will vary by the same percentage
(n%) as the variation in supply voltage. The maximum output power is
multiplied by (1 + n%)2.
Example : For a 20% increase in supply voltage
Start-up torque increases by 20% ( x 1.2)
No-load speed increases by 20% ( x 1.2)
Output power increases by 44% ( x 1.44)
The temperature rise of a motor is due to the difference between the
absorbed power and the output power of the motor. This difference is
the power loss.
Temperature rise is also related to the fact that power loss, in the form
of heat from the motor, is not rapidly absorbed by the ambient air
(thermal resistance). The thermal resistance of the motor can be greatly
reduced by ventilation.
The nominal operating characteristics correspond to the voltagetorque-
speed characteristics required for continuous operation at
an ambient temperature of 20˚ C. Only intermittent duty is possible
outside these operating conditions : without exception, all checks
concerning extreme operating conditions must be performed in
the actual customer application conditions in order to ensure safe
Our gearboxes have been designed for optimum performance and for
maximum life under normal operating conditions.
Their main characteristic is the capacity to withstand maximum design
torque with continuous duty.
The range of gearboxes shown in this catalogue can operate with
maximum torque of 0.5 to 6 N.m for long time periods. All values
previously stated are for standard products in normal operating
conditions, as specified.
In certain cases, these values may be increased if a shorter life is
Please consult our Sales Office for further information.
Every gearbox has a torque limit, which is
the breaking torque.
If this torque is applied to the gearbox, it will cause severe damage.
The following diagram shows the major elements of a gearbox:
A geared motor is selected according to the required usable power output.
A geared motor must have useable power equal to or greater than the power required to rotate the load. It is selected by checking that the point corresponding to the required operating conditions (torque and speed output) is higher than the nominal torque versus speed curve of the geared motor.
The required torque output of a geared motor must be within its maximum recommended torque for continuous duty.
Selecting the reduction gear ratio
Two selection criteria may be applied.
1. The first criterion concerns the required speed output of the reduction gear only. It is adequate for most applications and is easy to apply.
2. The second criterion concerns the required usable power output of the motor. The rotational speed of the motor is given by:
N = speed of motor (rpm)
No = no-load speed of motor (rpm)
P = required output power (W)
Cd = start-up torque of motor (Nm)
In order to avoid using numbers less than 1 where the reduction ratio is concerned, the value 1/R is employed.
Due to the fact that it is always a reduction gear and not a “multiplier” gear, there should be no ambiguity concerning the number used.